What are high-performance fibers and what are their characteristics?

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In the past, traditional textiles were mostly used for the production of fabrics and clothing. However, with the progress of the times and the development of science and technology, the textile industry has undergone tremendous changes.

In the past, traditional textiles were mostly used for the production of fabrics and clothing. However, with the progress of the times and the development of science and technology, the textile industry has undergone tremendous changes.

If you still think that textiles are just weaving clothing fabrics, then it's too out of place. Because of current textile technology, cars and airplanes can already be woven.

So, what type of fiber can achieve this? Today, let me give you a scientific introduction to this heavyweight player in the textile industry - high-performance fibers.

What is high-performance fiber

High performance fibers generally have the characteristics of high strength, high modulus, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, difficult combustion, and chemical stability, which are indestructible and can adapt to most harsh environments, making them the elite in the fiber industry and can be used in various engineering material fields.

Application Fields of High Performance Fibers

Carbon fiber and aramid fiber

Among high-performance fibers, the most representative ones are carbon fiber and aramid fiber.

1. Carbon fiber

Carbon fiber is not a fiber made from coal, but a high-strength and high modulus fiber with a carbon content of over 90%.

Schematic diagram of atomic structure of carbon fiber

Carbon fibers have the highest temperature resistance among all chemical fibers, and some can even withstand high temperatures above 3000 ℃ when not in contact with air and oxidants. And the most crucial thing is that the composite materials prepared with carbon fibers have a much lower weight than metals, so their applications are very broad, including engineering fields such as aerospace, national defense and military industry, transportation, and new energy.

A car body made of carbon fiber composite materials

In addition, carbon fiber plays an important role in automotive components and vehicles, sports and leisure, medical care, and other aspects, which are closely related to our daily lives.

2. Aramid fiber

When more than 85% of the amides are connected into a continuous aromatic ring, polyamide cannot be called nylon, and the fibers obtained by spinning aromatic polyamides are called aramid.

Structural characteristics of aromatic polyamides

Under the same specifications, the tensile performance of aramid fiber is stronger than that of steel wire, and it also has excellent thermal stability at 250-450 ℃, as well as insulation and self extinguishing functions. Therefore, aramid is often used to prepare materials such as racing tires, industrial cables, high-pressure hose frames, optical fibers, conveyor belts, and maritime and aviation carriers.

With the gradual arrival of the 5G era, aramid fibers, as excellent optical fiber materials, will surely shine brightly.

The Strategic Value of High Performance Fibers

1. High performance fibers are a new type of dual-use material related to national strategic security, and are a typical representative of leading the revolution in structural materials.

2. High performance fiber is an irreplaceable key material in national defense high-tech products, and is an indispensable basic material in major fields such as transportation and ocean engineering. It is also a key basic material for manufacturing 2025.

3. Carbon fiber and its composite materials, as one of the high-performance fibers, rank first in the national major project of "Key New Material Research and Application".

It can be said that high-performance fibers are a national treasure!

Therefore, the research and development and manufacturing of high-performance fibers have become one of the objects of technological competition among countries. The international embargo on this type of fiber is severe, and market behavior is difficult to solve. However, due to its military use, the United States and Japan still impose an embargo on high-grade para aramid fiber products in China to this day.

At present, there are still many urgent areas for improvement in the production level of high-performance fibers in China: many high-end high-performance fiber products still have the characteristics of insufficient performance, unstable quality, low cost, and insufficient variety. At the same time, energy and pollution emissions issues are also prominent. However, even so, China is gradually approaching the international developed level and becoming a major producer and consumer of high-performance fibers. Some domestic enterprises are already exploring relevant core technologies and are expected to break foreign monopolies. In the future, the production rate of domestic high-performance fibers is also expected to further increase.


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